• Lex Specialis

Judicial Remedies Under the Law of Torts

- Anish Jandial


Introduction


Let us start this point by understanding what 'remedy' really implies in Law. A party is supposed to be 'distressed' when something that they may have been enjoying has been detracted from them by another party. This is an encroachment of a party's rights and it is treatable by law. A legal remedy is one such treatment. At the point when the oppressed individual is reclaimed to the position that they were enjoying before their rights encroached, they are said to have been furnished with a legal remedy. There are different kinds of legal remedies. For example, if something that has a place with you has been detracted from you by a party, the court can either ask them to pay you back in money, or ask them to return your belongings as they were, and may likewise punish the party in some cases. There are two expansive kinds of remedies in Tort Law.

  1. Judicial Remedies.

  2. Extra-Judicial Remedies.


JUDICIAL REMEDIES


Judicial remedies are those remedies that are granted to a party by the court while extra-judicial remedies are those which are accessible to a party by his own act alone, in specific instances of torts. Judicial remedies are additionally partitioned into three fundamental sorts i.e. damages, injunction, and specific restitution of property, while extrajudicial remedies are arranged into a few different sorts like Expulsion of a trespasser, Re-entry on land, Recaption of goods, Distress damage feasant, Abatement of nuisance.In this topic, we will discuss judicial remedies.

  1. Damages

Damages or legal damages is the measure of money paid to the bothered party to take them back to the situation wherein they were before the tort had happened. They are paid to a plaintiff to assist them with recuperating the misfortune they have endured. Damages are an essential remedy for an activity for torts. "Damages" ought not to be mistaken for the plural of "damage", that for the most part signifies 'harm' or 'injury'.

  • Measurement of Damages

There is no mathematical equation to choose the quantum of damages. Consequently, various variables, including the facts and circumstances of each case are to be considered to find out the damages. Damages are in this manner granted at the discretion of the court.


  • Remoteness of Damage

As talked about over, the fundamental point is to take the oppressed party back to the status quo, that is, repaying the plaintiff. When in doubt, damage endured by the plaintiff ought to be an immediate outcome of the defendant's act. Any activity can have different results. An individual can't be considered responsible for all the outcomes coming about because of his act. The remoteness of outcomes coming about because of an individual's act has been an issue of discussion in the Law of Torts throughout the years. Different tests were created after some time to figure out what results of an act can an individual be held liable for. When there are no circumstances and logical results connection between the defendant's act and the injury caused to the plaintiff, the damage is supposed to be too remote to be in any way redressed.


In this case, Polemis, the plaintiff owned a cargo ship that they had contracted to the defendants. While emptying payload from the ship, the defendant's representatives accidentally knocked a plank into the ship, which caused a spark to ignite, which resulted in an explosion. The inquiry under the steady gaze of the court was, regardless of whether the damage because of the blast was an immediate aftereffect of the demonstration of the defendant's worker. Re Polemis Case (Re Polemis & Furness, Withy & Co Ltd)


In this case, the defendants owned a ship (The Wagon Mound No. 1). The plaintiffs were the owners of a dock named Morts Dock. Due to the defendant’s negligence, a spark has ignited that set some floating cotton waste nearby on fire, due to which the plaintiff’s wharf and their ship, the Wagon Mound was damaged. Wagon Mound Case (Overseas Tankship Ltd. v. Morts Docks & Engineering Co.)


2. Injunction


An injunction is an impartial remedy accessible in torts, conceded at the attentiveness of the court. A fair remedy is one in which the court, rather than repaying the wronged party, asks the other party to play out his piece of the guarantees. Along these lines, when a court requests that an individual not keep on accomplishing something, or to accomplish something positive in order to recoup the harm of the distressed party, the court is conceding an injunction. An exceptionally straightforward model is that of a court requesting an organization of developers to expand on land almost an emergency clinic, for the development sounds might be making a disturbance to the medical clinic.


An injunction is a request for a court that restrains an individual from proceeding with the commission of an unfair act, or requests the individual to submit a positive act to turn around the consequences of the improper act submitted by him, that is, to make acceptable what he has wrongly done. To get an injunction against a party one must demonstrate harm or the chance of forthcoming harm (captured harm). An injunction can be brief or changeless, and required or prohibitory. Let us examine every one of them individually. Law identifying with injunctions is found in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 and from Section 37 to Section 42 of the Specific Relief Act (consequently alluded to as the Act), 1963.


A suit of injunction can be documented against any individual, gathering or even the State.


  • When Injunction can not be guaranteed

According to Section 41 of the Specific Relief Act, an injunction cannot be granted:

  1. To stop a person from filing a case in the same court in which the injunction suit is sought, unless such an injunction is being asked for, to prevent a multiplicity of proceedings.

  2. To restrain or stop a person from filing or fighting a case in a court that is not subordinate to the one in which the injunction is being sought.

  3. To prevent a person from applying to any legislative body

  4. To restrain a person from filing or fighting a criminal case

  5. To prevent the breach of contract, the performance of which is not enforced specifically

  6. To prevent an act that is not a clear act of nuisance

  7. To prevent a continuing breach in which the plaintiff has himself acquiesced

  8. When an equally effective relief can be obtained in any other way or through any other sort of proceeding

  9. When the conduct of the plaintiff (or his agents) has been so wrongful as to disentitle him from the assistance of the court.

  10. When the plaintiff has no personal interest in the said matter.


3. Specific Restitution of Property


The third judicial remedy accessible in the Law of Torts is that of Specific Restitution of Property. Restitution implies the rebuilding of merchandise back to the proprietor of the products. At the point when an individual is improperly seized of his property or merchandise, he is qualified for the reclamation of his property.


Conclusion


In torts, the item behind remedying a party is to return the distressed party to the status or position that they were getting a charge out of before the event of tort. It isn't to rebuff the defendant, as in crime. Remedies can be judicial and extrajudicial. When fair treatment of law is required for a party to pick up remedy, and the courts are included, the remedies are called judicial remedies.

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